Last update: April 2020


  The presence of at least 3 attacks of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation in less than 24 hours.

Electrical Storm (ES)

  Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is the most common ES-documented arrhythmia.

Vulnerable substrate for ES

  Acute or chronic myocardial ischemia

  Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

  Fabry disease

  Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

  Valvular heart disease

  Cardiac tumors



  Long QT syndrome(LQTS).
Sympathetic blockade is important.

  Catecholaminergic polymorphic VT. Sympathetic blockade is important.

  Early repolarization syndrome
. Sympathetic stimulation is important.

  Brugada syndrome. Sympathetic stimulation is important.

  Short QT syndrome. Sympathetic stimulation is important.

Triggers for ES

  Acute myocardial ischemia

  New or worsened heart failure

  Noncompliance to antiarrhythmic medication

  Ventricular premature contraction

  T wave pacing

  Acute prolongation of QT interval.

  Drugs (Digoxin, Propofol, Epinephrine, etc.)

  Electrolyte abnormalities (Hypokalemia, etc.)

  Toxins (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), excess ethanol consumption, etc.)


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